GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY

GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY

Genotype is the gene sequence that represents the typical DNA of a plant species. Each gene, alone and in a sequence with others, contributes to the development and expression of certain characteristics and ability of the organism. Not all the genes are constantly expressed because the physiology of an organism in a specific situation could ask for more or less functions in relation to some stimuli.

The phenotype is the set of characters that the individual shows and it depends on the interaction between its genotype and the Environment. The same as genotype, it can shows different features depending on the influence the Environment has on the plant.

The process of choosing the correct species and cultivars could take years of testing because a certain genetics could have different expression in relation to different seasons: studying pros and cons of a cultivar is the base for getting reliable agronomic results.

To avoid some anomaly in soil or to limit some pathogens it is possibile with grafting a species on others compatible. Widely used both in horticulture and arboriculture, it allows us to mix the genetics of two individuals to serve as one.

The application of synthetic hormones is an extreme possibility when plants show syntoms of poor adjustment to the Environment or have troubles to accomplish a specific task (as fruit setting or fruit development). This can't be considered a regular way of managing plants otherwise we should re-consider the accuracy of previous choices made before. Instead of them we could use more natural products as biostimulants, able to elict physiological processes without changing their course.

A key point for the success is to read correctly the signals a plant give us during the cultivation cycle and to set our management right in case we are forcing to much its physiological pathway. To study and respect plants natural behaviour could give us a way to avoid unsatisfying results.